This publication is based on the “Study on Fraud in Land Administration Systems” presented at the Twelfth Session of the Working Party on Land Administration in 2021. It is an update to the 2011 “Study on the Challenges of Fraud to Land Administration Institutions" (ECE/HBP/165). It analyses the current state of play and best practices in addressing fraud in land administration systems in the ECE region. It includes best practices in the detection and prevention of fraud in land registration systems, necessitated by the public electronic availability of land and owner information in ECE member States. Its findings cover three main areas: accessibility of systems, experience of fraud and countermeasures. The study report recommends that internal controls and checks should be strengthened, and sanctions should be imposed to detect, prevent and deter fraud.